The convergence of markets, the reduction of market entry barriers, the increasing free availability of resources and production factors, and the rapidly advancing digitalization are leading to increasingly harmonizing and interchangeable products and marketing concepts. This leads to an increasing competitive dynamic whereby competitive advantages through product and process innovations represent a decreasing comparative competitive advantage.
In order to successfully shape the changing corporate concept, it is necessary to work sustainably and systematically on innovations. Non-technological innovations (NTI) such as marketing, management, organizational and business model innovations play an increasingly important role in the company's success (Bartoloni and Baussola 2016; Camisón and Villar-López 2014).
Especially important for the sustainable success of NTI is the systematic development along the innovation process according to the Business R&D. Business R&D describes the systematic approach of significantly renewing the company beyond products and processes (Osterwalder 2017). Meanwhile, the methods, tools and best practices are taught and researched within Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship is considered to be an important area in research and industry, as it leads to growing economic efficiency, bringing innovation to the market, create new jobs, and helping to maintain employment levels (Markman, Balkin, Baron, 2002). Michael et al. (2017) reveal that students who participated in entrepreneurship lectures show a high level of entrepreneurship understanding. By attending lectures at the university the students developed a higher level of entrepreneurship self-efficacy which leads to a higher level of entrepreneurship intention.
While entrepreneurship education is becoming increasingly popular at universities and companies (often named as intrapreneurship) are slowly opening up to the NTI, the question arises as to the effectiveness of lectures, workshops and training initiatives. One of the central questions universities and companies alike face is the impact of teaching content, didactic concepts and interdisciplinarity of learning groups or teams.
Against this background, the present research project examines the following two questions:
1. Which academic work exists in the field of entrepreneurship self-efficacy?
2. How effective are different courses for different target groups in the field of entrepreneurship?
In order to be able to contribute to answering the formulated research questions, different research methods are used. On the one hand, the literature on the search terms entrepreneurship and self-efficacy is identified and analyzed as part of a structured literature review. Afterwards a structural equation model is presented, which among other things includes the Entrepreneurship Self-Efficacy and uses the Entrepreneurship-Intention as a dependent variable. As part of different Entrepreneurship teaching formats at a German university, the participating students are interviewed before and after the respective Entrepreneurship course. In addition to the findings on Entrepreneurship Self-efficacy, other interesting references and experiences for entrepreneurship education can be generated.
The research project therefore generates highly relevant implications for theory and practice as it contributes to theory building, presents empirical evidence and therewith gains insights in the effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education.