Cooperation of economic universities in Poland with the business sector in the aspect of good practices in the EU countries

Janusz Rosiek
Cracow University of Economics

Abstract
Abstract
• introduction and aim: Introduction to the study, its objectives and/or hypotheses
In 2017-2019 the Department of Theory of Economics at the Cracow University of Economics implemented a project entitled "Entrepreneurship and academic innovation - a model of cooperation between economic universities and employers", adopted for implementation under an agreement between the Cracow University of Economics and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the program "Dialogue". The choice of this issue was associated with its great importance for the socio-economic development of Europe, whose key element is the cooperation of the scientific and business environment aimed at developing joint innovative solutions. The main goal of this paper is to develop practical solutions for science-business cooperation in Poland and specific methods for their implementation, including selected regions and sectors of the economy. Additional goals were: presentation of good practices used in EU countries in the field of SBC, presentation of the main conclusions from the debates and expert panels, formulation of research hypotheses based on them and their verification using appropriate methods, development of the target SBC model in Poland, providing recommendations/innovative solutions for enterprises and universities, as well as presentation of key elements of the implemented research project. The implementation of the above mentioned project has become an inspiration to write this publication.
In the article the following hypotheses are verified:
1. Cooperation between science and business (SBC) in Poland differs from the level achieved in this respect by EU countries.
2. SBC in Poland has huge unused so far potential.
3. Improving SBC quality requires coordination of the expectations of academic staff, business representatives and students.

• research methodology: Methods used and/or approach taken
The research method is based on the presentation of good practices used in EU countries in the field of cooperation between science and business (SBC), presentation of the main conclusions from expert debates and panels, formulation of research hypotheses on their basis and their verification using appropriate methods, development of the target model SBC in Poland, providing recommendations/innovative solutions for enterprises and universities, as well as support for graduates/students actively seeking work. The conducted research included the following stages:
- a synthetic, critical review of literature in the field of SBC,
- presenting results of own surveys,
- presentation and comparison of good practices in Poland and selected EU countries,
- formulating a diagnosis regarding the state of SBC in Poland and recommendations regarding desired SBC directions,

• results and implications: Results and/or arguments summarised
The results of the analyses were presented in the form of:
- indicating specific ways to implement good practices in EU countries to the Polish economy,
- presenting concrete ways to support SBC,
- developing a coherent SBC model, taking into account national/regional/local specificity,
- indicating of methods (tools) and definition of financial possibilities and financing schemes in the scope of possibilities of supporting SBC by: government/local authorities/business environment institutions (e.g. business angels)/EU funds,
- demonstrating practical methods of implementing specific cooperation schemes,
- developing and presenting objective SBC effectiveness assessment methods,
- presentation of SBC monitoring methods,
- verification of formulated hypotheses,
- proposing mechanisms to motivate entrepreneurs/academic staff/students,
- proposing concrete ways to overcome SBC barriers,
- developing new SBC models and methods for their implementation under specific conditions to a given region/industry,
- providing analysis tools - creating a modern graduate/student profile for various fields of economic studies,
- using of SWOT analysis to determine benefits and potential development opportunities in the field of SBC.

• conclusion: Main outcomes of the study
The outcomes of the study will be presented in the form of:
- describing of the state of the art, comparison of solutions used in Poland with those which were implemented in the EU countries (e.g. good practices),
- assessing of the effectiveness of SBC solutions between Poland and the other EU countries,
- presenting results of SBC surveys and their interpretation,
- determining the desired directions of development and implementation of theoretical solutions to practice,
- presenting the demands of entrepreneurs, academics and students,
- formulating recommendations for curricula, as well as Human Resources departments in companies and students,
- determining the features of the current and desired SBC model,
- formulating final conclusions.